Wayne Bequette, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, From Pilot Plant to Manufacturing: Effect of Scale - Up on Operation of Jacketed Reactors Erem Bilensoy, Hacettepe University Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara, Turkey, Cyclodextrin - Based Nanomaterials in Pharmaceutical Field St e phanie Blanquet, Universit e d Auvergne, Clermont - Ferrand, France, Recombinant Saccharomyces Cerevisiae as New Drug Delivery System to Gut: In Vitro Validation and Oral Formulation Gary W. Because of this diffusional barrier, new strategies have been developed to allow compounds to better penetrate the stratum corneum  . These results can be explained by the increment of vaginal mucosa blood fl ow that is also induced by estrogen. The bottom - up approach involves the assembly of atoms, molecules, or nanoscale components to assemble a larger structure within the nanoscale range. ( 2002 ), Cellular localisation of a water - soluble fullerene derivative , Biochem. Bumgarner, Samford University, Birmingham, Alabama, Transdermal Drug Delivery Isidoro Caraballo, University of Sevilla, Seville, Spain, Tablet Design Stephen M. These strategies can be defi ned as either chemical or physical approaches to disrupting the barrier function of the skin. The transport mechanism of most vaginal absorbed substances is simple diffusion. REFERENCES 1287 1288 NANOTECHNOLOGY IN PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING 145. There are numerous methods by which this can be achieved, including conventional bulk chemical processing methods and exploitation of chemical and biological self - assembly techniques. The knowledge obtained during development may support the establishment of a design space and determines suitable process controls.These same Qb D principles have been applied to the development of analytical methods, and are termed “Analytical Qb D” (AQb D) [3-20].Scott Asbill, Samford University, Birmingham, Alabama, Transdermal Drug Delivery Maria Fernanda Bahia, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, Vaginal Drug Delivery Bernard Bataille, University of Montpelier 1, Montpellier, France, Tablet Design Gerald W. It is a 9 - h adhesive matrix patch and comes in four sizes: a 12.5 - cm 2 patch that has a delivery rate of 1.1 mg/h, an 18.75 - cm 2 patch that has a delivery rate of 1.6 mg/h, a 25 - cm 2 patch that delivers 2.2 mg/h, and a 37.5 - cm 2 patch that delivers 3.3 mg/h. As the epithelium is hormonally dependent, its permeability also changes, usually decreasing with higher estrogen levels because of the induced membrane thickening. 22.214.171.124 Top - Down and Bottom - Up Approaches to Nanotechnology There are generally two approaches to nanotechnology, the top - down and bottom - up approaches. Becker, SSCI, West Lafayette, Indiana, Biotechnology - Derived Drug Product Development; Regulatory Considerations in Approval of Follow - On Protein Drug Products B. 5.11.8 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL APPROACHES TO TRANSERMAL DELIVERY Due to the brick - and - mortar structure of the stratum corneum, the skin is a diffi cult layer to permeate across for most active pharmaceutical ingredients. ( 2006 ), Dynamics of skin barrier repair following topical applications of miconazole nitrate , Skin Pharmacol. However, contradictory fi ndings of enhanced vaginal absorption in postmenopausal women treated with estrogen have been reported  . As the names suggest, the top - down approach utilizes ultraprecision machining and nanolithographic techniques among others to achieve very high defi nition structures with nanolevel accuracy, usually either by removing material from the surface of a larger structure until the desired structure with desired features is achieved or through deposition of material with almost atomic - scale precision and control. Method validation may be regarded as one of the most well-known areas in analytical chemistry as is reflected in the substantial number of articles submitted and published in peer review journals every year.However, some of the relevant parameters recommended by regulatory bodies are often used interchangeably and incorrectly or are miscalculated, due to few references to evaluate some of the terms as well as wrong application of the mathematical and statistical approaches used in their estimation.
The outcome of using Qb D concepts is a well-understood product and process that consistently delivers its intended performance.
These mistakes have led to misinterpretation and ambiguity in the terminology and in some instances to wrong scientific conclusions.
In this article, the definitions of various relevant performance indicators such as selectivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, ruggedness, and robustness are critically discussed with a view to prevent their erroneous usage and ensure scientific correctness and consistency among publications.
In the pharmaceutical industry, countless HPLCs are working in research and quality control laboratories, churning out innumerable test results each day on the dosage levels, purity, and dissolution characteristics of new drug candidates or marketed products.
how can anyone be sure that each HPLC autosampler is injecting precisely or that the column has not degraded the day before?